Issue 147: Check if there is a need for a generalized class to identify usage

Starting Date: 
Working Group: 
Closing Date: 

Talking about scope of usage and date of usage of a name, we observed that these attributes indicate the context in which a name is used - who uses this identifier and what for? We conclude that the scope of usage and the date of usage do not pertain to the names themselves but to activities dealing with the names. The question to CRM is "do we need a generalized class to identify usage?"

Paris 14/3/2007

We came back to the scope of usage and date of usage of a name (motivated by the mapping of FRAD, attributes of name: dates of usage, scope of usage ) and our previous remark that these pertain to the activities dealing with the names and not the names themselves. Under this view we discuss if we need a generalized class in CRM to identify usage? 
We observed that there is nothing in CRM that makes it clear that a name is connected with a given time span, clear. We made the following schema:

Edinburg 10/7/2007

Old Proposal: 

We need a name use activity.

Edinburgh 10/7/2007

Current Proposal: 

We clarified that the reason why we move Appellation to Thing was for making use of P16 used specific object (was used for). Since Appellation is regarded as a thing there is no need for this specific class. We decided the following actions:

  1. To add an example to E7 Activity about the use of a name (MD will do it)
  2. To write a FAQ about the use of a name (MD will do it)
  3. Since there is a difference between something being present and something being used, we decided that we should add something about the name use in the scope note of P16 (MD will do it).

Nuremberg 4-7 December 2007

E7 Activity

Subclass of: E5 Event
Superclass of: E8 Acquisition 
E9 Move
E10 Transfer of Custody 
E11 Modification 
E13 Attribute Assignment
E66 Formation 
E85 Joining
E86 Leaving


Scope note:


This class comprises actions intentionally carried out by instances of E39 Actor that result in changes of state in the cultural, social, or physical systems documented.

This notion includes complex, composite and long-lasting actions such as the building of a settlement or a war, as well as simple, short-lived actions such as the opening of a door.



  • the Battle of Stalingrad
  • the Yalta Conference
  • my birthday celebration 28-6-1995
  • the writing of "Faust" by Goethe (E65)
  • the formation of the Bauhaus 1919 (E66)
  • calling the place identified by TGN '7017998' 'Quyunjig' by the people of Iraq




P14 carried out by (performed): E39 Actor
(P14.1 in the role of: E55 Type)
P15 was influenced by (influenced): E1 CRM Entity
P16 used specific object (was used for): E70 Thing
(P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P17 was motivated by (motivated): E1 CRM Entity
P19 was intended use of (was made for): E71 Man-Made Thing
(P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of): E7Activity
P21had general purpose (was purpose of): E55 Type
P32 used general technique (was technique of): E55 Type
P33used specific technique (was used by):E29 Design or Procedure
P125 used object of type (was type of object used in): E55 Type
P134 continued (was continued by): E7 Activity


P16 used specific object (was used for)

Domain: E7 Activity


E70 Thing

Subproperty of: E5 Event. P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at): E77 Persistent Item 
E7 Activity. P15 was influenced by (influenced): E1 CRM Entity

Superproperty of:

E7 Activity.P33 used specific technique (was used by):E29 Design or Procedure
E15 Identifier Assignment. P142 used constituent (was used in):E41 Appellation


many to many (0,n:0,n)


Scope note:


This property describes the use of material or immaterial things in a way essential to the performance or the outcome of an E7 Activity.

This property typically applies to tools, instruments, moulds, raw materials and items embedded in a product. It implies that the presence of the object in question was a necessary condition for the action. For example, the activity of writing this text required the use of a computer. An immaterial thing can be used if at least one of its carriers is present. For example, the software tools on a computer.

Another example is the use of a particular name by a particular group of people over some span to identify a thing, such as a settlement. In this case, the physical carriers of this name are at least the people understanding its use.



  • the writing of this scope note (E7) used specific object Nicholas Crofts� computer (E22) mode of use Typing Tool; Storage Medium (E55)
  • the people of Iraq calling the place identified by TGN �7017998� (E7)used specific object 'Quyunjig' (E44) mode of use Current; Vernacular (E55)



P16.1 mode of use: E55Type


Heraklion, May 2008


Proposal accepted

Heraklion, May 2008