Issue 260: Review specializations of Appellation
When the crm-sig closed the issue 233 in Hague meeting, they decided that someone should write an issue about which specializations of appellation should be removed.
30th CRM-SIG meeting, Hague April 2014
In the 32nd joined meeting of the CIDOC CRM SIG and ISO/TC46/SC4/WG9 and the 25th FRBR - CIDOC CRM Harmonization meeting the crm-sig, reviewing this issue, has noted that a class definition in CRM must not depend on the incidental association of its instances with another entity instance. The sense of subclasses of Appellation has been misinterpreted in that sense. the discourse about inferring the class of something identified by a special kind of identifier appears to be exotic after years of CRM applications.
This would justify putting this stuff into an extension about Named Entity resolution and TEI.
Steve, Arianna Ciula, Øyvind, will elaborate this issue by reviewing the subclasses of E41 Appellation.
Posted by Oyvind on 20/5/2015
Some preliminary notes, sorry about being late, of course:
1. Add to E41 scope note, this paragraph:
“Specific subclasses of E41 Appellation should be used when instances of E41 Appellation of a characteristic form are used for particular objects. Instances of E49 Time Appellation, for example, which take the form of instances of E50 Date, can be easily recognised.”
“Thus, the use of subclasses of E41 is not determined of the characteristics of the object the appellation refer to, e.g., a person or a place, but rather the form of the appellation showing it as a special type of an appellation, such as a place name or person name.”
2. Subclasses of E41
E35 Title: scope note misleading. It refers to something functioning a title, not having the form of a title.
E42 Identifier: scope note misleading. It refers to something functioning as an identifier, not having the form of one.
E44 Place Appellation: scope note correct (“any sort of identifier characteristically used to refer to an E53 Place”) but could be clearer.
E49 Time Appellation: scope note correct but could be clearer, as E44.
E51 Contact Point: I think the scope note is OK, but not sure how clear it is.
E75 Conceptual Object Appellation: scope note correct and clear (“by their form or syntax specific to identifying instances of”). Use this phrasing on the others?
E82 Actor Appellation: scope note correct but could be clearer, as E44.
3. Putting stuff in extension?
It would be good to know more about current use of these subclasses, partly to examine how they are (mis]used, partly to know if any of them are not used very much.
As for what should be in the extension I must admit I do not really remember the details.
Posted by Arianna Ciula on 20/5/2015
Thanks for this. I am in a hurry now but since I know the meeting is already taking place I prefer to reply with something quick than nothing.
I think you addition is god but there is a typo:
- the use of subclasses of E41 is not determined of the characteristics of the object --> the use of subclasses of E41 is not determined **by** the characteristics of the object
Based on your addition as example we could maybe use a place name used as toponymic surname. This would be a case of E44 Place Appellation despite the fact that it is naming a person. For example in the Fine Rolls we had many cases like the following:
Isabella d'Aubigny (Alban', Alben', Albin', Albini, Albiniac', Albiniaco, Albyn) [Aubigné, Saint Aubin d', dep. Ille-et-Vilaine, France]
For clarity 'd'Aubigny' is the toponymic surname; within round brackets you have the textual variants and within the square brackets the details of where the place ' Aubigny' is.
I hope this is useful for now.
Posted by Øyvind on 20/5/2015
Thanks for the comments, Arianna!
We will use them when we discuss it. The example is an interesting one — there is a comparable one in TEI (my mother’s father ). Not sure they are equal thought. His name is Dystvold. We should compare at one point maybe.
Posted by Øyvindon 20/5/2015
To remind ourselves, this is how TEI does it:
<surname type="toponymic" ref="#dystvold">Dystvold</surname>
<!-- ... -->
So here it is claimed (in this case truthfully) that the name is a surname, but it is toponymic and linked to the place name.
Just to throw it in, I am not sure how equal these are.
posted by Arianna Ciula on 20/5/2015
Yes. You told me before I think.
They are comparable:
<surname type="toponymic" ref="#dystvold">Dystvold</surname>
<!-- ... -->
If we had to map this <surname type="toponymic"> would be an instance of E44 Place Appellation but so would also be the <placeName xml:id="dystvold">.
What is missing in the TEI example is information on the location of the place of course (and as you know we have the problem that in TEI you can replicate the place geopolitical structure within a <placeName>... hence the confusion between the thing being named and the type of name).
This makes me think that the use of 'form' for appellations might be also misleading (but I know that might be problematic to touch) because it could be interpreted to the form of the name in linguistic, lexicographical, entomological sense (what in TEI is called <nym>).
posted by Oyevind
Form: we cannot step back from complexity here. We have to work through the complexity, hopefully to an easy to understand result. It seems clear that what we can give this week is a report on work in progress — then with input for the whole group we can continue working on this.
Thank for opening the cans — I mean it, we need to understand or at least acknowledge the complexity.
posted by Ovind on 24/3/2017
Here is my homework for Issue 260:
1. E35: Accepted the comment made by Oyvind that the scope note of E35 Title is misleading, since it refers to something functioning a title, not having the form of a title, it is decided to keep the Title, to update scope note. This HW is assigned to Oyvind
I have changed the first paragraph of the scope note
Old scope note for E35:
> This class comprises the names assigned to works, such as texts, artworks or pieces of music.
> Titles are proper noun phrases or verbal phrases, and should not be confused with generic object names such as “chair”, “painting” or “book” (the latter are common nouns that stand for instances of E55 Type). Titles may be assigned by the creator of the work itself, or by a social group.
> This class also comprises the translations of titles that are used as surrogates for the original titles in different social contexts.
Proposed new version:
“This class comprises textual strings that within a cultural context can be clearly identified as titles due to their form. Being a subclass of E41 Appellation, E35 Title can only be used when such a string is actually are used as a title of a work, such as a text, an artwork, or a piece of music.
Titles are proper noun phrases or verbal phrases, and should not be confused with generic object names such as “chair”, “painting” or “book” (the latter are common nouns that stand for instances of E55 Type). Titles may be assigned by the creator of the work itself, or by a social group.
This class also comprises the translations of titles that are used as surrogates for the original titles in different social contexts.”
2. E49 Time Appellation: to keep but it should be merged with Date and it should be decided if they keep the same name (Oyvind)
E50 Date should be marked obsolete. I have changed the inheritance, the first paragraph of the scope note, and added two examples.
Old definition of E49 Time Appellation:
> Subclass of : E41 Appellation
> Superclass of: E50 Date
> Scope Note:
> This class comprises all forms of names or codes, such as historical periods which are characteristically used to refer to a specific E52 Time-Span. This includes human- and machine readable dates and timestamps.
> The instances of E49 Time Appellation may vary in their degree of precision, and they may be relative to other time frames, “Before Christ” for example. Instances of E52 Time-Span are often defined by reference to a cultural period or an event e.g. ‘the duration of the Ming Dynasty’.
> • “Meiji” [Japanese term for a specific time-span]
> • “1st half of the XX century”
> • “Quaternary”
> • “1215 Hegira” [a date in the Islamic calendar]
> • “Last century”
New definition of E49 Time Appellation:
Subclass of : E41 Appellation
This class comprises all forms of names or codes, such as historical periods, and dates, which are characteristically used to refer to a specific E52 Time-Span.
The instances of E49 Time Appellation may vary in their degree of precision, and they may be relative to other time frames, “Before Christ” for example. Instances of E52 Time-Span are often defined by reference to a cultural period or an event e.g. ‘the duration of the Ming Dynasty’.
• “Meiji” [Japanese term for a specific time-span]
• “1st half of the XX century”
• “1215 Hegira” [a date in the Islamic calendar]
• “Last century”
• “Mon May 19 22:39:23 CET 2014”
Posted by Martin 24/3/2017
I agree with the scope note, given the interpretation we decided. I wonder however if there is a
deeper issue here:
In Germany there exists the saying that dying Goethe uttered "mehr Licht" ("more light"). I reused this proposition yesterday, because I wanted to read a newspaper.
Claude Shannon defined information as a message with a known provenance, which is the most accepted theory in computer science.
That would mean that the identity of an Information Object is a tuple <content,sender>, rather than <content>.
If we accept that, we enter another hell of arguments about what the identity of the sender is. That is easy for a Title, but quite tricky for the non-smoking symbol.
Question: Should we touch also this front, or are we sure that "more light" is always "more light" ?
In other words, may be a title actually deviates from an appellation in that it adds to its identity the provenance, which in turn allows for translation?
Posted by Oyvind on 26/3/2017
this is dangerous territory. Do we need to go there? We may have to open up all sorts of boxes including those owned by language philosophers and semioticians.
An utterance is made by someone, surely. But is a title an utterance? It is not purely either or, but is it not more langue than parole? https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Langue_and_parole
I think one can find many different views on what information is in the humanities and many of them would be quite different from Shannon. Personally, I think thinking based on dialogism makes a lot of sense.
Posted by Christian Emil on 26/3/2017
It is an interesting area. However, the class title was intrudeced for practical-pragmatical purposes in CRM at an early stage and from a museum point of view. To try to go into deep details may be interesting indeed, but should perhaps not be the higest prioritized task.
A comment to the new scopenote, the sentence "This class comprises textual strings that within a cultural context can be clearly identified as titles due to their form" in the defintion of a class Title is almost without information value. The only contraint is that titles are textual strings.
Posted by Jim Salmons on 27/3/2017
To All and especially Martin and Oyvind,
Although not specifically germane to the "rights" conversation of the moment, I would like to contribute a further refining dimension to Martin's and Oyvind's discussion about Claude Shannon's definition of 'information' as a 'message' with a 'known provenance', that is, the distinction between the tuple of <message, sender> vis a vis <message>.
The notion of fact/assertion (let's not quibble about the truth-value of a statement at this point, only its existence as a 'parole' -- spoken/written linguistic utterance) is incomplete without the 'sender' aspect to the assertion. This insight is fundamental to FactMiners' development of the MAGAZINE #GTS (Ground-Truth Storage) format as an extension of PRImA's PAGE #GTS format.
An often unspoken assumption about an historical document -- a book or monograph, for example -- is that its message/content 'speaks' with the voice of its author or coordinated group of authors. This notion of unified voice is completely inappropriate as an assumption about the content of a commercial magazine (or for most academic/research journals for that matter) where multiple disconnected 'message-senders' have equal access to the 'channel' of the magazine's content.
The same 'fact' (assertion) made by a -- in our case of Softalk magazine -- a software product-publisher in an advertisement in an issue of a serial publication/magazine is completely different than the same fact/assertion contributed by an authoritative reviewer in the same issue of the magazine. The credibility of that assertion is further reducible if the same fact/assertion is made in the issue by a previously unknown author of a letter to the editor of the publication.
This recognition of Shannon's message/sender tuple is the basis for FactMiners' desire to create the MAGAZINE #GTS format as one with integrated complex document structure and content depiction models derived from a #cidocCRM/FRBRoo/PRESSoo ontological 'stack'.
Posted by Oyvind on 28/3/2017
Dear Oeyvind, Christian-Emil,
I agree with both of you and propose to drop the change.I would leave it open to which degree the Title gets identity from the sender. But given that titles are translated, I'd argue that the concept is implicit that the title depends on the sender.
Posted by George on 1/4/2017
With regards to this H/W, I was assigned to look at E51 Contact Point and harmonize to Parthenos Entities which has PE29 Access Point which is understood as an address used in an information network environment local or global which allows for directing communication to some entity.
In terms of harmonization then PE29 is clearly just a subclass of E51. With regards to insights potentially provided to the core model, it would seem to support the idea that there may be a generalized communication brokering service to be modelled which facilitates messages between actors. In the case of Parthenos Entities this PE8 E-Service which is said to ‘provide access point’ to some digital object which it hosts and which bears this address as a means of finding it. (Model to be found in attached slide)
One could imagine a general communication service would offer some means of reaching an object, hold a relation to the object itself and the object in turn would relate to the means of reaching it. That being said, the model is quite speculative and does not seem to be required by any particular data structure at present. Therefore, I thin owe can be content with knowing that E51 adequately models a piece of information that allows you to contact some agent and that it serves as an adequate generalization for a specialization that deals with the particular situation of machine communication.
In the 38th joined meeting of the CIDOC CRM SIG and ISO/TC46/SC4/WG9 and the 31st FRBR - CIDOC CRM Harmonization meeting, the crm-sig discussed about the proposal made by Oyvind and decided the following:
- The proposed changes in the scope note of E35 Title has not been accepted
- The new definition about E49 Time Appellation has been accepted and the E50 has been marked obsolete.
- The E51 Contact Point will be discussed in the next meeting.
Heraklion, April 2017
posted by Christian Emil on 27/4/2017
I am studying some of the example mappings in the online 3M system. There are some strange mapping suggestion there.
An exhibition of (fine) arts is usually mapped as an E5 Event.
An exhibition is often given a title e.g. "Fly me to the moon". E35 Title is a subclass of E41 Appellation and P102 has title has E71 Man-Made Thing as domain. Thus an exhibition, mapped as an E5 Event, cannot have a title only an appellation in CRM.
In every day language an exhibition can be opened, closed, mounted, taken down. Apparently there are physical aspect associated with an exhibition as well ass conceptual aspects (the plan). But what does the exhibtion title denote?
Posted by Christian Emil on 27/4/2017
I realized that we can use instances of E35 Title to identify all instances of E1 CRM Entity through P1 is identified by (identifies) . I was confused by the mapping.