Issue 109: Declare "necessary" and "dependent" properties

Starting Date: 
Working Group: 
Closing Date: 
Current Proposal: 

a) Dimension: "P90 has value" and "P91 unit" should have the same cardinality: Many to one. A Dimension can define only one value/unit pair, else the correlation between the value and the unit would be lost. May be the thing is already too implementation oriented for the CRM.

b) "P108 has produced" : There should be at most one production event per object. The next processing step would be a modification. Otherwies, if there are multiple events in the production process (such as mold building, cast etc.), they are PARTS ("P9 consists of") of one longer Production Event.

c) E6 Destruction P13 destroyed (was destroyed by) Physical Object should have carinality: "1:many, necessary",

as all other destructive properties (P93 etc.), and not "many:many". I assume a protocol error in Copenhagen.

d) I propose, in order to clarify fully the ontological meaning of CRM properties wrt cardinality constraints, to introduce the following:

1. "necessary" : in reality every domain instance has at least one such link.
2. "dependent" : in reality every range instance has at least one such link.
(The range instance "depends" in its existence on at least one domain instance)

Both terms are well introduced in computer science.

The backward link reads "necessary" as "dependent" and vice-versa.

Those constraints do not mean, that we know or ever should know the respective properties.
The constraints are ontological. An implementation would be oriented on epistemological
constraints, i.e. what can be learned. This is why I repeat the phrase "in reality".

To which degree a Condition State must exist or not without people having conceived it, might be debatable.
I assumed, that an Object does not always come with some may be non-thought-of Condition State.

All links to Dimension must express, that a Dimension is specific to the related: P83, P84 must be 1:something,
because P43 is 1:many, dependent. Necessarily, P83, P84 must be 1:1, dependent, and not "many:1".

Hence we read:

many:many = (0,n):(0,n)
many:many, necessary = (1,n):(0,n)
many:many, dependent = (0,n):(1,n)
many:many, necessary, dependent = (1,n):(1,n)

many:1 = (0,1):(0,n)
many:1, necessary = (1):(0,n)
many:1, dependent = (0,1):(1,n)
many:1, necessary, dependent = (1):(1,n)

1:many = (0,n):(0,1)
1:many, necessary = (1,n):(0,1)
1:many, dependent = (0,n):(1)
1:many, necessary, dependent = (1,n):(1)

I propose for:

Temporal Entity P4 has time-span (is time-span of) Time-Span : "many:1, necessary, dependent"

E4 Period P7 took place at (witnessed) Place : "many:many, necessary"

E5 Event P11 had participant (participated in) Actor "many:many, dependent",
comment: "In reality, Actors would at least participate in the Event that brings them about"

E7 Activity P14 carried out by (performed) Actor "many:many, necessary"
comment: "In reality, at least one Actor should have carried out the Activity"

E8 Acquisition Event P22 transferred title to (acquired title of) Actor "many:many" (no change!)
comment:"In reality, the title is at least either transferred to someone or from someone."

E8 Acquisition Event P24 transferred title of (changed ownership by) Physical Stuff "many:many, necessary"

E9 Move P25 moved (moved by) Physical Object "many:many, necessary"

E9 Move P26 moved to (was destination of) Place "many:many, necessary"
E9 Move P27 moved from (was origin of) Place "many:many, necessary"

E10 Transfer of Custody P28 custody received by (received custody) Actor "many:many" (no change!)
comment: "In reality, the custody is at least either transferred to someone or from someone."

E10 Transfer of Custody P30 transferred custody of (custody changed by) Physical Object "many:many, necessary"

E11 Modification Event P31 has modified (was modified by) Physical Man-Made Stuff "many:many, necessary"

E14 Condition Assessment P34 concerned (was assessed by) Physical Stuff "many:many, necessary"

E14 Condition Assessment P35 has identified (identified by) Condition State "many:many, necessary"

E15 Identifier Assignment P36 registered (was registered by) Physical Object "many:1, necessary"

E15 Identifier Assignment P37 assigned (was assigned by) Object Identifier "many:1, necessary"
comment: "An Object Identifier might be created prior to an assignment"

E16 Measurement Event P39 measured (was measured by) Stuff "many:1, necessary"

E16 Measuremen Eventt P40 observed dimension (was observed) Dimension "many:many, necessary"

E17 Type Assignment P41 classified (was classified by) CRM Entity "many:1, necessary"

E17 Type Assignment P42 assigned (was assigned by) Type "many:many, necessary"

E70 Stuff P43 has dimension (is dimension of) Dimension "1:many, dependent"

E18 Physical Stuff P44 has condition (condition of) Condition State "1:many, dependent"

E18 Physical Stuff P45 consists of (is incorporated in) Material "many:many, necessary"

E18 Physical Stuff P53 has former or current location (is former or current location of) Place "many:many, necessary"

E19 Physical Object P56 bears feature (is found on) Physical Feature "1:many, dependent"

E18 Physical Stuff P58 has section definition (defines section) Section Definition "1:many, dependent"

E31 Document P70 documents (is documented in) CRM Entity "many:many, necessary"

E32 Authority Document P71 lists (is listed in) Type "many:many, necessary"

E33 Linguistic Object P72 has language (is language of) Language "many:many, necessary"

E52 Time-Span P81 ongoing throughout Time Primitive "many:many, necessary"

E52 Time-Span P82 at some time within Time Primitive "many:many, necessary"

E52 Time-Span P83 had at least duration (was minimum duration of) Dimension "1:1, necessary, dependent"

E52 Time-Span P84 had at most duration (was maximum duration of) Dimension "1:1, necessary, dependent"

E54 Dimension P90 has value Number "many:1, necessary"

E54 Dimension P91 unit Measurement Unit "many:1, necessary"

E63 Beginning of Existence P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by) Persistent Item "1:many, necessary, dependent"

E64 End of Existence P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by) Persistent Item "1:many, necessary"

E65 Creation Event P94 has created (was created by) Conceptual Object "1:many, necessary, dependent"

E66 Formation Event P95 has formed (was formed by) Group "1:many, necessary, dependent"

E67 Birth P96 by mother (gave birth) Person "many:1, necessary"

E67 Birth P97 from father (was father for) Person "many:many, necessary"

E67 Birth P98 brought into life (was born) Person "1:many, dependent"

E68 Dissolution P99 dissolved (was dissolved by) Group "1:many, necessary"

E69 Death P100 was death of (died in) Person "1:many, necessary"

E71 Man-Made Stuff P102 has title (is title of) Title "many:many, dependent"
comment: ". We cannot imagine a title being created without an object in mind."

E74 Group P107 has current or former member (is current or former member of) Actor "many:many, necessary"
comment: "A Group necessarily consists of more than one Person."

E12 Production Event P108 has produced (was produced by) Physical Man-Made Stuff "1:many, necessary, dependent"

E78 Collection P109 is curated by (curates) Actor "many:many, necessary"

E79 Part Addition P110 added to (was augmented by) Physical Man-Made Stuff "many:1, necessary"

E79 Part Addition P111 added (was added by) Physical Stuff "many:many, necessary"

E80 Part Removal P112 removed from (was diminished by) Physical Man-Made Stuff "many:1, necessary"

E80 Part Removal P113 removed (was removed by) Physical Stuff "many:many, necessary"

E81 Transformation P123 resulted in (was result on) Persistent Item "many:many, necessary"

E81 Transformation P124 transformed (was transformed by) Persistent Item "many:many, necessary"

Obviously, quite a lot of concepts depend on the existence of a relation to others. That seems to me an important element of
their definition



Both word and numeric cardinality notation to be used: e.g. many:many (0,n):(0,n)

Cardinality statements following the above proposal in the property list amended and accepted

Rethymnon 22/10/2002